That exercise only shows what happens with above the waterline hits. That is not how you sink any surface ship. I participated in the sinking of a WWII Destroyer Escort. Not much of a ship really, and certainly nothing like a carrier. The DE was closed up in GQ condition and we pounded that thing along with a cruiser and a couple other DDs for a full day. Then we got to spend the night going in circles around it because it wouldn't go down and it could not become a hazard to navigation.
There is ordinance that will do the job much faster and with much greater certainty, and none of them are armored. I can guarantee that without using torpedoes that are nuke armed we have the tools to sink any carrier ever made, and do it pronto.