The 1903 was made the year they introduced the 33 Winchester. And that caliber was an early modern smokeless caliber. Not one adapted from black to smokeless. Be Well, RZ.
I guess. There's about a 20% bolt thrust increase from .33Win to .348Win. I know I personally would prefer a Miroku receiver to a 118 year old ??? steel Winchester receiver for the higher bolt thrust cartridges.
In terms of what's possible, the OAL and rim diameter are the same(ish) between the 33Win and .50-110. So it seems like all options are on the table without too much work.
I would not load any of the .458 or .510 options with a crescent butt plate. If you've got a shotgun butt stock (especially pistol grip) I'd be more interested in the big stuff.